The Combat Infantry Badge (CIB) is awarded to Army enlisted infantry, infantry or special forces officers in the grade of Colonel or below, as well as warrant officers with an infantry or special forces MOS. Subsequent to December 6, 1941, recipients must have satisfactorily performed duty while assigned as a member of an infantry, ranger or special forces unit of brigade during any period in which such unit was engaged in active ground combat. Eligibility for Special Forces personnel accrues from December 20, 1989, and is not awarded retroactively. The recipient must be personally present and under hostile fire while in a unit actively engaged in ground combat with the enemy. Awards will not be made to general officers nor to members of headquarters companies of units larger in size than brigade. Subsequent awards are indicated by superimposing 1 and 2 stars centered at the top of the badge between the points of the oak wreath. The CIB and the Expert Infantry Badge were created primarily as a means of recognizing the sacrifices of the infantrymen who were disproportionately likely to be killed or wounded during World War II.